EMDR therapy is an eight-phase treatment. Eye movements (or other bilateral stimulation) are used during one part of the session. After the clinician has determined which memory to target first, he asks the client to hold different aspects of that event or thought in mind and to use his eyes to track the therapist’s hand as it moves back and forth across the client’s field of vision. As this happens, for reasons believed by a Harvard researcher to be connected with the biological mechanisms involved in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, internal associations arise and the clients begin to process the memory and disturbing feelings. In successful EMDR therapy, the meaning of painful events is transformed on an emotional level. For instance, a rape victim shifts from feeling horror and self-disgust to holding the firm belief that, “I survived it and I am strong.” Retrieved information: https://www.emdr.com/what-is-emdr/

Once we have established whether this is the appropriate treatment for you, we use time to prepare you with resources helping you to regulate discomfort, to be able to anchor and ground yourself, as well as to create a sense of calm. This may take some time and sessions before we begin with desensitising disturbances.

YES. EMDR can be conducted online/remotely. It would be exactly the same process. For this I will also move my fingers for you to follow (once we get to this stage). Depending on your IT resources, I may also use some digital support, i.e., following a dot on my shared screen (rather than my fingers). 

EMDR applications, i.e.:

  • PTSD
  • Grief
  • Attachment-trauma
  • Depression
  • Anxiety and Panic Disorder
  • Chronic Pain
  • Distressing Life Experiences
  • Addiction (especially if caused by trauma)


The Window of Tolerance model is a framework that explains how individuals cope with different types of demands, triggers, stressors, and unexpected events. It describes the range of emotions, physiological responses, and behaviors that are considered to be "normal" or "adaptive" in any given situation.

Dealing and responding within the window of tolerance means that an individual is able to remain resourced, resilient, and relaxed in the face of various demands. They are able to regulate their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively and without becoming overwhelmed.

However, some events or triggers may be more powerful than others and can push an individual outside of their window of tolerance. For example, a traumatic event from the past may be particularly triggering for an individual and push them into a state of hyperarousal or dissociation.

It is important to note that the window of tolerance is not a fixed concept and can change depending on an individual's current level of stress, their past experiences, and their overall resilience. Therefore, it is important for individuals to understand their own window of tolerance and to work on developing strategies to expand it.

Examples of strategies to expand the window of tolerance include practicing mindfulness, engaging in regular physical activity, building a supportive social network, and seeking professional help when necessary. By expanding the window of tolerance, individuals can increase their ability to cope with demands, triggers, and unexpected events, and lead a more resilient and fulfilling life.

A regulated nervous system is one that is able to effectively respond to different types of demands and stressors without becoming overwhelmed. As mentioned before, this means that an individual's physiological responses, emotions, and behaviors are within a "normal" or "adaptive" range. You are able to regulate your physiological arousal, such as heart rate and breathing, and are able to modulate your emotions and behaviors in a way that allows you to respond effectively to different situations. You are within the window of tolerance.

On the other hand, if your nervous system is unregulated you are easily overwhelmed by demands and stressors. This can lead to a state of hyperarousal or dissociation, where an individual's physiological responses, emotions, and behaviors are outside the window of tolerance.

You may experience symptoms of dysregulation: rapid heart rate and shallow breathing, and unable or struggle

responding effectively. You may feel overwhelmed, anxious, agitated, angry (signs of hyperarousal). Or your mind goes blank, your body freezes, or experience a sense of disconnet and not beng fully present. This state is called hypoarousal. 

An unregulated nervous system can have negative impacts on an your mental and physical health, and can lead to a wide range of symptoms such as anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and difficulty with relationships and daily functioning.